South Africa to America
On 10 Apr 1864 James Allen Knight departed with his wife and son from Port Elizabeth on the Susan Pardew (also seen spelled as Pardeaux, Pardeau) which was a cargo barque (bark), and sailed for Boston. After 62 days en route they arrived in Boston on 11 Jun 1864. The LDS Missionaries in charge of this group of 18 passengers were William Fotheringham and Henry Aldous Dixon.
This web site describes some of the conditions for the pioneers migrating to Utah at this time.
Some trivia about the Susan Pardew
In 1981, a residential area in Groot Brakrivier (Great Brak River), South Africa was developed called "Hersham". Later, in 1996, a second development in Hersham took place and it was decided to name the streets after old ship wrecks in the area.
One street was named "Susan Pardew Rd."
The Susan Pardew ran aground and was wrecked near the Great Brak River estuary (slightly east of Susan Pardew Rd.) in 1872
A guest house (bread-and-breakfast?) in Cape Town is called the Susan Pardew:
Description of a barque:
Arriving in Utah
They arrived in Wyoming, Nebraska (probably by train) in July and then trekked to Salt Lake City, arriving in October 1864 (according to Treasures of Pioneer History).
Wyoming, Nebraska was an outfitting town about file miles northwest of Nebraska City.
+40° 44' 9.97", -95° 55' 9.07"
One year later (Apr 1865), Miner G. Atwood departed South Africa sailing to New York and then traveled back to his home in Salt Lake City.
On 25 Jul 1868 in Salt Lake City, James' son John Allen Knight married Miner's daughter Isora Maria Atwood.
I'm sure the friendship between the Knights and Atwoods formed in South Africa as part of Miner Atwood's missionary work there.
Excerpts from Treasures of Pioneer History
Vol 2, Pioneer Money, Banks and Bankers, Summit County
The Kamas State Bank was organized in November 1909. First officers were John B. Hoyt, president; Samuel W. Stewart, vice-president; R. W. Barnes, cashier; R. L. King, John G. M. Barnes, John Pack, Jr., James A. Knight, T. A. Dannenberg, directors.
[not sure if this is the same James A. Knight]
Excerpts from Treasures of Pioneer History
Vol 6, South Africa's Contribution to Utah - John Allen Knight
[references in this text to John A. Knight, Sr. must really be about James Allen Knight]
John A. Knight, Sr., went to Africa as a soldier in the British army under Sir Harry Smith and fought in the Kaffir War. When peace was established he remained in Cape Colony following the vocation of schoolteacher. He became acquainted with Charlotte Allen Lutman, a widow, with a son and daughter, whose husband had gone to South Africa in search of gold and diamonds. Charlotte and John, the young schoolteacher, were married. John Allen Knight was born of this union in Uitenhage, South Africa January 10, 1846.
Among the early converts to the Latter-day Saint Church was the Knight family. John Allen was baptized when ten years of age by Elder William Priestley. Their conversion resulted in an estrangement between the mother and her older children. Their father's estate had provided them with a competence and their mother was disinherited. Times were hard in the new country and at the age of thirteen, John Allen, and a number of other young men were apprenticed to a Mr. Rotman to learn the trade of wheelwright. He served for three years without pay, except board, which consisted mainly of fish, brown bread and coffee. John Allen had a mechanical[p.286] bent and made rapid progress. At the end of the three years he was given a small wage each week and then began the desire "to gather to Zion." Every penny was hoarded. He bought lambs with his savings and also worked many hours at night making foot stoves or warmers, which found a ready sale among the people. Providence was kind to the young man; his investments proved to be sound, and when nineteen years of age he had saved sufficient money to emigrate himself and father and mother to Utah. The family left with an independent company in the spring of 1864 on a three-masted sailing vessel named the Susan Pardeux being three months at sea. Elder William Fotheringham and Elder Henry Dixon were in charge of the Saints and kept their hearts and spirits aglow with the songs of Zion.
July, 1864 the company of Saints arrived at Wyoming, Nebraska, where preparations were made for the trek across the plains by ox teams. The journey was a hazardous one. The Civil War was raging; hostile Indians were on the war-path; guerrilla warfare was being waged, particularly in the west; the bones of white men and women scalped by Indians were often found bleaching in the sun. Three months of such experiences were enough to appall the stoutest hearts, but footsore and weary the company arrived in Salt Lake October 1st.
The Knights found a temporary home with the Shearer family. Six months by land and sea had exhausted their resources; they had come from a warm climate and were poorly clad for the rigors of a severe winter, work was scarce and although he was a skilled mechanic, there were no materials to work with. His feet wrapped in burlap, Johnny, as he was familiarly called, chopped wood and did such odd jobs as he could find to help tide the family over the winter.
Early in the spring of 1865 he learned the cooper's trade and made barrels and kegs for the Charles Donaldson Company. In 1866 he labored as a carpenter for John Gray, working on many of the public buildings, especially the interior finishing of the Tabernacle and the making of the seats. Miner G. Atwood returned to Utah in 1865 with the last organized company of Latter-day Saints ever to emigrate from South Africa. His return furnished an excuse for young Knight to visit the home of the staunch friend he had met in South Africa who was responsible for his conversion to the Latter-day Saint faith. Here he met Isora M., daughter of Miner Grant Atwood, and some three years later, July 25, 1868 they were married in the Endowment House, Daniel H. Wells, officiating.
In the spring of 1869, President Brigham Young opened a wagon shop for the Church on Second East. Later the building was used for the street car barns. Jesse Little was shop foreman and John A. worked for him for two years. In 1871, Naylot Brothers esiablished a wagon factory on State Street and John Allen was given employment. Taking a wagon for part of his pay, he purchased 31/2 x 10 rods[p.287] at 535 E. 1st So. Sts., from his father-in-law, and William Naylor loaned him sufficient money with which to build a one-room house. Thanksgiving Day, 1871, found the family comfortably located in their new home.
In the fall of 1875, the Deseret Wagon Company was organized, John F. Oblad, John Reese, Joseph Walker and John A. Knight forming a partnership. Later, Oblad and Knight purchased the interests and the firm continued in business under the name of Oblad and Knight until 1905. Mr. Oblad died in 1904 and the Knight Carriage and Automobile Company was incorporated. A modern building was erected on what is now Motor Avenue. It was the pioneer establishment in making Social Hall Avenue the recognized center of automobile trade in Salt Lake City. Several of the horse-drawn fire and police wagons were among the products of this company.
John A. Knight was always active in civic affairs, though he never sought political office. He was one of the first volunteer firemen serving in the 1880's and was appointed a special policeman by the mayor of Salt Lake City. He was ever active in Church affairs, being ordained a Seventy December 11, 1875 by Truman O. Angell and assigned to the 8th Quorum. February 8, 1908 he was ordained a High Priest by Hamilton G. Park and on February 24, 1912 was ordained a Patriarch under the hands of the First Presidency. He passed away April 18, 1919 leaving his wife and ten children to mourn his loss. --John M. Knight
George Fredrick Watkin Kershaw was born May 11, 1821 at Clarkenwell, London, England, son of George Kershaw and Sally Watkins. It is presumed that he spent his childhood until young manhood in the place of his birth. The English government at that time was sending colonizers to South Africa and young George had a choice of joining the "Boer War" or sailing with a group of people who were being sent to colonize around Cape Colony and Port Elizabeth. A fleet of eight vessels set sail for South Africa for that purpose. George Fredrick and a young lady by the name of Eliza, born in London, England November 25, 1822, to Thomas L. Byard and Ann Stephens, were passengers on one of the vessels. He was going to this faraway land to establish a business for himself and she to visit a sister who lived in South America. They became acquainted, fell in love, and were married December 17, 1849, soon after landing.
George Fredrick Kershaw was a builder by trade, being able to construct a building from the first architectural plans to the masonry and carpentry work. With this trade he played a very important part in the building of an empire. It was while working on one of these buildings high above the ground that two Mormon missionaries approached him on the subject of religion. Not being able to hear them[p.288] he suggested that they wait until he came down and after talking with them for sometime, he invited them to his home. After several visits he, and his wife, Eliza, joined the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the 5[?], year 1855.
Times in the new country were hard for the family which now consisted of the father, mother and six children, Joseph Hyrum, Annie Maria, Sarah Lucretia. Lydia Eliza, Samuel and Jabez who later was called George. Joseph often recalled that his parents made several moves which he attributed to the fact that his father went to various places to find work. At one time the parents left Joseph, and his younger sister, Lydia, in the care of a Dutch lady by the name of Roberts. Mr. Roberts was a freighter and as ox teams were the only means of travel in those days, it necessitated his being away from home most of the time. Mrs. Roberts made her living by going to an orchard and choosing the tree she wanted the fruit from, then paying the owner for the fruit on the tree. When the fruit was ready she picked, sorted and took the fruit to market. She also made mushroom and red pepper catsup to sell. At times, in that part of the country, monkeys came in droves to make raids on the gardens. People set traps by cutting a hole in the side of a pumpkin just large enough to get his hand in and when the monkey got a handful of seeds, of which he was very fond, he found he could not get his hand out again without letting go of the seeds. The monkeys were then exterminated. When the children had been living with the Roberts about eighteen months, Mr. Roberts took them back to their parents who were now living in Grahamstown.
From the time the members of the Kershaw family had joined the Latter-day Saint Church it was their fervent desire to gather with the Saints in Zion. They started at once saving money for the move. The barque Susan Pardeux set sail for Boston nine years after they joined the Church. Elders William Fotheringham and Henry Dixon were in charge of a small company of Saints who sailed as first class passengers in 1864. George had saved enough money by this time to send one member of his family to America. The decision was reached to send the eldest child, Sarah Lucretia, then fourteen years of age, ahead, while the rest of the family was to follow the next year.
Later Miner Grant Atwood, one of the elders presiding over the Saints in South Africa was appointed to lead them in their preparations to go to Utah. He made arrangements with the captain of a small sailing vessel called the Mexicana and had it fitted up to accommodate the small company of Saints who wished to go. On April 12, 1865 the Kershaw family sailed from Port Elizabeth bound for New York. Mr. Kershaw was engaged as cook.
On the 6th of June, 1865, George Fredrick Kershaw died in latitude 25-16 North, longitude 66-25 West, 980 miles from New York. His body was sewn in a piece of canvas, a bag of sand tied to his feet, and put overboard at 1 p.m., leaving his wife and children[p.289] to mourn their great loss. Before lowering his remains into the sea the children begged so hard to see his face once more that the captain cut the canvas to grant their request.
Since the Mexicana was not a regular sailing vessel, it lacked the proper conveniences. The tank was not large enough to supply all the fresh water needed and barrels were placed on deck to catch rain water for washing and cleaning. Soon after her husband's death, Eliza wanted to wash some of his clothing and so got permission from those in charge. As she was getting a bucket of water out of a barrel, a young man grabbed the bucket from her and threw the water on her. A sailor close by caught the offender and would have thrown him overboard had not the captain happened along and interfered. In order for the Saints to bathe, another barrel was placed in a convenient place on deck. They bailed water from the ocean for this purpose. The children had great sport with a pet monkey on board. He would run up and down the riggings and when the children got beneath him he would jump on their backs. To punish him the children would give him a bath in the barrel. At first he resented it but ere long he rather enjoyed the experience.
At times there would be a calm at sea when the ship did not seem to be moving at all. Then again they would run into a school of flying fish and many of them would fall upon the deck. The next day they were sure to have a fish dinner. One day Joseph was hanging around the cook's cabin and the cook gave him a ham bone. He was standing on deck chewing at the bone when suddenly the ship gave a lurch. It threw him down on the end of the bone, cutting a large gash in his forehead.
In due time the company arrived safely at Castle Gardens on the 18th of June, 1865. They boarded a train and went to St. Joseph, Missouri where they camped for awhile. Some of the passengers went to see a waterfall nearby. Joseph cried because his mother would not let him go, fearing that he might get lost. While they were encamped there one of the girls was trying to reach water in the river with an old teakettle when the bank gave way, throwing her into the water. A young man by the name of Smith jumped in after her but the kettle full of water kept pulling her under. He kept trying to get the kettle out of her hand until they were both about to go under when George, his brother, jumped in after them. A strong current brought them to the bank which was so steep they could not get out. The men on the bank linked themselves together then secured a hold on the younger people and pulled them ashore.
After the company had waited in St. Joseph for some time, the boat arrived for which they had been waiting. Their route was up the Missouri to Wyoming, Nebraska where they stayed until outfits were readied for the trek across the plains. These outfits and the oxen belonged to Thomas Taylor but they crossed the plains in the Captain William W. Willis company. They had been traveling for sometime[p.290] when an accident occurred. It became necessary to rope one of the oxen to catch it. The yoke was nearly on when he gave a loud bellow and drove into the side of the other ox, causing a stampede. Samuel, who was then about six years of age, was in the wagon and became very frightened. He tried to crawl out of the back end, when a box fell across his neck pinning him between the box and the end-gate and holding him there until the oxen were quieted.
In November, 1865 the company arrived in Salt Lake City, Utah. The family moved into one room of the Mary L. Morris home and everyone treated the immigrants kindly. They never went hungry. On their first Christmas in Utah, Mrs. Morris asked Joseph to carry her sick boy to a neighbor's place where she had been invited for dinner. After they got there Joseph was told to sit down and rest. The lady of the house wanted him to stay for dinner but Mrs. Morris said, "No, his mother wishes him to go right back." "Wait a minute," said the lady. She went into another room and returned with a package. "Take this home with you." It proved to be a delicious pie. Other neighbors had stacked their little table with Christmas presents.
The mother obtained work in a family by the name of Young. She also did washing for other Young families and in the spring of 1865, Annie began working for the same family. Early that same spring Sarah Lucretia came to Salt Lake City from Beaver where she had been staying with William Fotheringham, under whose care she had come from South Africa.
(Research):South African Emigration 1853-1865
from A History of the South African Mission, vol. 1, p. 264-280
Evan P. Wright was the author
This book can found at the Family History Library in Salt Lake City under Africa/Mideast 968 k2we vols. 1-3 or microfilm 1059491.
Passenger listings on the Susan Pardew:
Jas Knight, age 50, Teacher
Mrs. C Knight, age 48
John, age 22
Note: In the book Treasures of Pioneer History it states that John A Knight Sr came to South Africa but I'm pretty sure that it is really referring to James Allen Knight.
According to Treasures of Pioneer History they arrived in Utah in October 1864. This needs to be confirmed. Unable to find them on lists of pioneer companies that made these treks.
NFS shows 16 Jan 1811 in Catherington, Hamps., England. Needs to be confirmed. This might mean that he was born in Ireland but lived most of his childhood in England.
Possible 1st Marriage
NewFamilySearch shows James Allen Knight marrying Margaret Fitzpatrick on 10 Jul 1828 in India. I have not been able to prove or disprove this but I'm not spending time on this marriage since it is very likely for a different James Knight.
William Henry Priestly
It is mentioned in Treasures of Pioneer History that John Allen Knigh was baptized by Elder William Priestly. At the FHL on Film: 1644025 I found his baptism information:
heading: Cape Conference, Baptized: 3 Nov 1853, age 36 by Pres. Jesse Haven